The Islamic Republic of Iran lies in West Asia on the crossroads of main commerce routes passing by way of the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. It has giant reserves of oil and pure fuel and is an vitality superpower. Nonetheless, it’s nonetheless categorised as an upper-middle-income nation by the World Financial institution.
Although Iran has diversified its financial system by growing biotechnology, car manufacturing, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries, the financial system continues to be largely reliant on oil exports.
Most of its worldwide commerce is carried out by way of its seaports. On account of an absence of funds, upcoming ports like Chabahar are being financed by different international locations and worldwide organisations. Nonetheless, Iran realises the strategic significance of its ports and is finishing up enlargement and modernisation packages on the main terminals and harbours for driving financial progress.
Allow us to discover the options of the 6 main ports in Iran.
1. Port of Bandar Abbas
Bandar Abbas port is the primary maritime outlet of Iran because it lies on the coast of Hormuz Bay throughout the Hormuz islands. The principal port of the nation is linked to Tehran and main Iranian cities by roadways and railways. It ships chrome ore, crimson oxide, cotton carpets, marble blocks, petroleum merchandise, dried fruits, pistachios, nuts, Kerman rugs and imports cotton piece items, tea, sugar, matches, fertilisers, grains, development tools and woollens. The port handles 37,000,000 tonnes of cargo and 1,000,000 TEUs yearly.
The harbour is split into two areas; the primary port referred to as Shahid Rajaee Port Advanced and the previous port of Bandar Shahid Bahonar. Other than being an industrial port, it additionally serves as a strategic naval base and was categorised as a Particular Financial Zone by the nation’s excessive council. It’s a main gateway for items shifting to and from the Central Asian international locations and has commerce hyperlinks with Europe, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Americas.
The Shahid Rajaee port lies on the foot of the Gachin and Kashar mountains within the western a part of the town. It covers 1,600,000 m2 of land out of which 164,000 m2 is devoted to warehousing and storage services. An enormous grain silo, a fishing harbour and extra cargo storage areas are being constructed on the port as a part of the enlargement challenge. Leisure services are additionally supplied on the port’s Seamen’s membership.
It has ten common cargo berths overlaying 2000 m with a water depth of 12 m. Its container terminal has 5 devoted berths and particular cargoes together with dry bulk are dealt with at 4 wharves adjoining to the grain storage space. Petroleum merchandise are loaded on the two multipurpose wharves whereas crude oil is dealt with on the Abbas Foulad Oil Terminal and the STC Quay, a personal oil transit berth. It additionally has a RORO berth and a passenger terminal serving barges as much as 240 m lengthy. This port can accommodate 100,000 DWT bulk carriers and 80,000 DWT tankers.
Located north of the Qeshm Island, the Shahid Bahonar port space covers 31 hectares together with 9 hectares of warehousing space. It’s important for the area’s financial system and homes many essential industrial models just like the Bandar Abbas Refinery, one of many greatest oil refineries in Iran.
The port accommodates 6 standard berths overlaying 1050 m, two 390 m oil jetties and three multipurpose wharves for dealing with miscellaneous cargoes. An ore-loading berth measuring 190 m offers with bulk ore shipments. A passenger terminal and a barge jetty are additionally positioned within the previous port.
2. Port of Amirabad
Amirabad port is positioned within the Mazandaran Province on Iran’s Caspian Sea Coast. It’s a multipurpose facility and incorporates the Amirabad Particular Financial Zone. The port was established to benefit from its beneficial geographical location by dealing with important volumes of cargo visitors passing by way of the Caspian Sea.
Oil exploration firms and shipbuilding industries within the close by metropolis of Neka contribute to the nationwide financial system. The port additionally serves these models by supplying key uncooked supplies to those services. The primary cargoes dealt with at Amirabad port embody containers, oil, Ro-Ro and dry bulk.
The port metropolis homes many vacationer sights just like the Miankaleh island, the historic place of Abbas Abad and the Lapo Swamp. Amirabad port is Iran’s solely northern port that’s built-in into the nationwide railroad system and is well accessible to the Central Asian area, the Far East, the Center East and Europe through seaways in addition to land routes.
It consists of 33 wharves for loading and discharging numerous cargo varieties. The port was designed to deal with round 5 million tonnes of oil and industrial items yearly, It’s linked to main commerce and industrial centres and likewise handles Roro transhipments. A lot of the port space is devoted to the area’s oil refineries and petrochemical crops.
It additionally accommodates a 16,000 sq. metres stacking warehouse, an 850 m2 listing warehouse and three warehouses overlaying 30,000 m2. Moreover, the port supplies 9 million m2 of backup space and 1,000,000 sq m of the operational space. The authorities are planning to assemble three designated port areas for serving the oil business. An 8000-ton silo, 4 transit warehouses and 35 new berths can be constructed in future.
3. Port of Anzali
Anzali port is the primary gateway for Northern Iran and a well-liked seaside resort on the Caspian Sea. It’s simply 40 kilometres from the town of Rasht, the capital of the Gilan province and 60 kilometres from Tehran. Often known as the World Capital of Treasured Caviar, Anzali port was established within the early nineteenth century and was a serious buying and selling publish in mediaeval instances. It was additionally occupied by the Russians in 1920 however their management resulted in 1921.
The largest port on the Caspian Sea, it has services for dealing with common cargo, breakbulk, liquid cargo, roro and containers. It’s identified for exporting dried fruits, development materials, chemical substances, dwelling home equipment, greens, fruits, heavy equipment, autos, minerals and many others. Essential imports comprise non-iron metals, containerised items, spare elements, rubber, plastics, barley, wheat, fibre, Fabric and many others. Round 4 million tonnes of cargo and over 1300 vessels are dealt with on the port yearly.
Anzali port requires common dredging since it’s positioned amidst sandy peninsulas. Therefore the entry channel has irregular water depth and the harbour is protected by two breakwaters. Cargo vessels with a most LOA of 154 m and a beam of 15 m can enter the port facility.
It covers 71 hectares and includes 11 berths with a complete berthing line of 1200 m2 and alongside depths of 6.5 m, able to accommodating 5000 DWT ships. Most of those services together with an oil depot and a fishery station are located on the japanese facet of the doorway channel. The port incorporates 23,000 m2 of lined warehouse area, 50 hectares of open yards and a 1220 m2 hangar.
Port modernisation began after the Second World Conflict which elevated the quantity of visitors dealt with on the port. To spice up productiveness, the regional authorities opened a Free Commerce industrial zone close to the port premises in 2003 for attracting overseas traders and multinational firms.
4. Port of Nowshahr
Nowshahr port spans 44 hectares of land space consisting of quite a few jetties, coastal in addition to offshore tools and 15-hectare space for storing. The ability hosts greater than 500 ships yearly. After the completion of the enlargement challenge, 3 new wharves had been constructed and the jetty depth was elevated to 7.5 m for receiving bigger vessels.
It’s positioned on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, simply 194 kilometres north of Tehran. A multipurpose facility, it incorporates the Khazar Particular Financial Zone and is understood for delivery recent vegatables and fruits, nuts, minerals and dairy merchandise. It imports chemical substances, oil merchandise, metal, spare elements, metallic, development tools and timber. Roughly 1,500,000 tonnes of cargo go by way of this port yearly.
It’s the nearest to the capital, the primary industrial centres of Iran and likewise the Central Asian markets and Japanese Europe. The worldwide airport is simply 2 kilometres from the port space. Nowshahr has many future prospects and the authorities plan to develop the port hinterland, assemble extra industrial and petrochemical berths, set up value-adding processing models, chilly storage services, fashionable export terminals and grain silos.
5. Port of Chabahar
Chabahar port lies in southern Iran going through the Gulf of Oman, near the Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. It’s the solely Iranian port having direct entry to the Indian Ocean. Chabahar is a crucial transhipment centre on the north-south transport hall and has the potential to rework into a serious industrial hub of the area.
The primary cargo dealt with on the port contains bagged grains, fertilisers and containers. Some cargo ships are unloaded on the anchorage and items are taken to the port through barges. It’s made up of two-port complexes; the Shahid Kalantari port and Shahid Beheshti port. Roughly 1,400,000 tonnes of cargo and over 1600 vessels are dealt with on the facility yearly.
Since it’s near Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, it performs a key function in worldwide geopolitics. Two-port berths had been developed by India as a part of a bilateral settlement between the 2 nations. India additionally financed the port growth for accessing the Afghan and Central Asian commerce markets by way of Chabahar, with out utilizing the routes traversing Pakistan.
The Shahid Beheshti port consists of two container berths, every overlaying 360 m. These can accommodate ships carrying 4000 TEUs, with an LOA of 320 m and a draft of 16 m. It has 3 multipurpose wharves spanning 1320 m2 for berthing 100,000 DWT cargo carriers. A 185 m lengthy minerals berth and a 250 m oil berth had been additionally constructed within the first part of enlargement which elevated the annual port capability to eight.5 million tonnes.
4 phases are anticipated to be accomplished by 2024 which might enhance the port’s cargo capability to 86 million tonnes. The Shahid Kalantari port has 5 berths out of which 4 deal with conventional vessels and barges whereas the fifth is the multipurpose wharf, able to receiving 40,000 DWT ships.
6. Imam Khomeini Port
Positioned on the fringe of the Persian Gulf close to the Khormusa waterway, the Imam Khomeini port covers 11,041 hectares of land space and receives oil tankers, bulk and container carriers arriving from the Persian Gulf, Oman gulf, Hormuz Strait and the Indian Ocean. It’s the most fashionable port in Iran and likewise the biggest when it comes to port space.
Though it handles minerals, ores, common cargo and containers, Imam Khomeini is called a serious petrochemical export facility. An essential rail terminus, it handles round 16,500,000 tonnes of cargo, 40,300 TEUs and 6300 passengers yearly.
The port is effectively linked to the nationwide railway community and roads resulting in main industrial centres and Iranian cities. It has commerce connections with Iraq, Caucasus, Turkey and Japanese Europe.
The port gives docking and repackaging companies; container stuffing and stripping stations are current within the container dealing with space. The authorities plan to develop the port additional by developing extra wharves and establishing shipbuilding, dry docks and petrochemical industries within the neighborhood.
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