Water Jet Machining – Working Precept, Functions, Benefits

What’s Water Jet Machining?

Water Jet Machining (WJM), also called water jet chopping, is a non-traditional machining course of that makes use of a high-velocity jet of water to take away supplies from the workpiece’s floor.

Water jets are used on this course of, which acts as a tool within the type of a water noticed. The water is quickly raised and targeted on the goal workpiece on this course of.

It’s able to utilizing abrasive particles combined in water jet supplies and a few metals at excessive velocity and stress. Some processes use no abrasive in any respect, and these are often known as pure water jet machining processes.

This machining course of makes use of water stress starting from 200 MPa to 400 MPa. The stress varies relying on the workpiece from which the fabric is to be extracted. This course of is just like the pure phenomenon of water erosion.

It’s primarily used to take away supplies from non-metallic and comfortable workpieces corresponding to plastics, rubber, and glass. On this course of, a high-velocity water jet is used to take away supplies from the workpiece. The fundamental ideas of this course of are that the water jet’s kinetic power have to be transformed into stress power to ensure that it to take away the fabric from the workpiece.

When a water jet collides with a workpiece with kinetic power, the kinetic power is transformed into stress power. This pressurized power will trigger stress on the workpiece, and in consequence, the strain materials will start to maneuver away from the workpiece.

Working Precept of Water Jet Machining

Working precept of water jet machining relies on water erosion. The fabric is expelled when a high-velocity jet of water strikes the floor. Mushy supplies are machined utilizing pure water jets. To chop laborious supplies, nevertheless, some abrasive particles are combined with water for machining, which is called AWJM (Abrasive Water Jet Machining).

Components of Water Jet Machining

The important thing ingredient in water jet machining (WJM) is a water jet,

1. Reservoir

A water reservoir is used for storing water that will likely be used in the course of the machining course of. The reservoir is usually situated considerably above your entire setup.

That is completed to make sure a steady and uninterrupted circulation of water.

2. Hydraulic pump

The hydraulic pump is powered from a 30- kilowatt (kW) electrical motor and provides oil at pressures as excessive as 117 bars as a way to drive a reciprocating plunger pump termed an intensifier. The hydraulic pump affords full flexibility for water jet chopping and cleansing purposes. It additionally helps single or a number of chopping stations for elevated machining productiveness.

3. Hydraulic intensifier

The intensifier accepts the water at low stress (usually 4 bar) and expels it, by way of an accumulator, at increased pressures upto 3000 to 4000 bar. The intensifier converts the power from the low-pressure hydraulic fluid into ultrahigh-pressure water. The hydraulic system offers fluid energy to a reciprocating piston within the intensifier heart part.

4. Accumulator

The accumulator maintains the continual circulation of the high-pressure water and eliminates stress fluctuations. It depends on the compressibility of water (12 p.c at 3800 bar) as a way to preserve a uniform discharge stress and water jet velocity, when the intensifier piston adjustments its route.

5. Excessive stress tubing

Excessive-pressure tubing transports pressurized water to the chopping head. Typical tube diameters are 6 to 14 mm. The gear permits for versatile motion of the chopping head. The chopping motion is managed both manually or by way of a remote-control valve specifically designed for this function.

6. Nozzle

In water jet machining, it’s a machine that converts the stress power of water into kinetic power. The nozzle on this case converts the stress of the water jet right into a high-velocity beam of water jet. To forestall erosion, the nozzle tip is manufactured from ruby or diamond.

7. Management valve

This management valve regulates each the stress and the circulation of water and directs it to the circulation regulator. The stress energies will likely be transformed into kinetic power at this level.

8. Circulation regulator

A circulation regulator regulates the circulation of water coming from the management valve. After adjusting the circulation regulator, the water will go by way of the nozzle, changing the excessive stress of the water into high-velocity water.

9. Catcher

The catcher acts as a reservoir for gathering the machining particles entrained within the water jet. Furthermore, it reduces the noise ranges (105 decibels (dB)) related to the discount within the velocity of the water jet from Mach 3 to subsonic ranges.

Working of Water Jet Machining

First, a pump is used to switch water at a excessive fee. The water enters the intensifier at a low stress and is transferred to the accumulator at a excessive stress of about 3800 bar. The accumulator is a tool that quickly shops high-pressure water.

Water Jet Machining

The accumulator‘s high-pressure water is transferred to a management valve, which controls the route of the water. The management valve converts water stress power to kinetic power, changing high-pressure water to high-velocity water, which is then despatched to the circulation regulator.

The circulation regulator regulates the circulation fee of the water and directs it to the nozzle. The kinetic power of the water will increase considerably within the nozzle, and the nozzle produces high-velocity water.

The water then exits the outlet and is directed towards the workpiece. When the water jet reaches the workpiece, the kinetic power is transformed again to stress power, and the workpiece is underneath full stress.

This stress from the water jet will trigger some fractures on the a part of the workpiece the place the water jet bike is situated, in addition to some cracks within the floor of the workpiece, and because the water jet continues to strike the floor of the workpiece for an prolonged time frame. The crack will deepen, and the fabric will likely be faraway from the workpiece.

The extracted materials is carried away by water. After the fabric is eliminated, the water that cuts the fabric is collected for later use. Components of the chips lower utilizing this course of will likely be current within the materials on this water. This water will likely be despatched for additional purification, or it may be reassembled by way of your entire jet machining course of.

Benefits and Drawback of Water Jet Machining


  • It has multidirectional chopping capability.
  • No warmth is produced.
  • Cuts could be began at any location with out the necessity for predrilled holes.
  • Wetting of the workpiece materials is minimal.
  • There is no such thing as a deflection to the remainder of the workpiece.
  • The burr produced is minimal.
  • The device doesn’t put on and, subsequently, doesn’t want sharpening.
  • The method is environmentally secure.
  • Hazardous airborne mud contamination and waste disposal issues which might be widespread when utilizing different cleansing strategies are eradicated.
  • There’s a number of head processing. Easy fixturing eliminates pricey and complex tooling, which
    reduces turnaround time and lowers the price.
  • Grinding and sprucing are eradicated, lowering secondary operation
  • The slender kerf permits tight nesting when a number of components are lower from
    a single clean.
  • It’s perfect for roughing out materials for close to web form.
  • It’s perfect for laser reflective supplies corresponding to copper and aluminum.
  • It permits for extra correct chopping of soppy materials.
  • It cuts by way of very thick materials corresponding to 383 mm in titanium and 307 mm in Inconel.

Disadvantages / Limitations

  • It’s not appropriate for mass manufacturing due to excessive upkeep necessities.
  • Preliminary price may be very excessive.
  • Very thick supplies can’t be machined by this course of.
  • It’s used for chopping softer supplies, however AWJM CAN lower tougher materials for restricted thickness.

Functions of Water Jet Machining

WJM is used on metals, paper, material, leather-based, rubber, plastics, meals, and
ceramics. It’s a versatile and cost-effective chopping course of that can be utilized as an alternative choice to conventional machining strategies. It utterly eliminates heat-affected zones, poisonous fumes, recast layers, work hardening, and thermal stresses.

It’s the most versatile and efficient cleansing resolution obtainable for quite a lot of industrial wants. Normally the lower floor has a sandblast look. Furthermore, tougher supplies exhibit a greater edge end. Typical floor finishes ranges from 1.6 µm root imply sq. (RMS) to very coarse relying on the appliance.

Tolerances are within the vary of ±25 µm on skinny materials. Each the produced floor roughness and tolerance rely upon the machining velocity.

Functions of WJM are :-

  • Water jet machining is used to chop, form, and streamline operations in quite a lot of industries, together with mining, automotive, and aerospace.
  • Rubber, textiles, plastics, foam, leather-based, composites, tiles, stone glasses, meals, steel/paper, and different supplies are generally mechanized by water jets (WJM or AWJM).
  • WJM is usually used to chop comfortable and simply machined supplies corresponding to skinny sheets and foil, wooden, nonferrous steel alloys, textiles, honeycomb, plastics, polymers, leather-based items, frozen, and so forth.
  • AWJM is incessantly used to machine supplies which might be troublesome to machine. It’s used to machine thick plates manufactured from metal, aluminum, and different business supplies, bolstered plastics, steel matrix and ceramic matrix composites, layered composites, stone, glass, and so forth.
  • Other than the machining course of, high-pressure water jets are used to take away residual stresses in paint removing, surgical procedure, cleansing, peeing, and different purposes. Drilling, pocket milling, turning, and reaming may also be completed with AWJM.

What merchandise are made by water jet chopping?

Waterjet chopping permits companies to create a variety of components and merchandise. Interlocking {hardware} (bolts, gears, and so forth. ), automotive components, electrical elements, huge meeting line gadgets, and design prototypes are only a few of the merchandise they manufacture with water jet chopping. Waterjet chopping may also be utilized by artists to make geometrically correct and/or intricate artworks.

Is water jet chopping sustainable?

Waterjet chopping is an environmentally beneficial course of by nature. Waterjet chopping, not like conventional mechanical chopping programs, doesn’t require cooling or lubricating oils. This eliminates the necessity to get rid of chemically affected chips. Waterjet, not like thermal strategies like plasma or laser, produces no dangerous fumes in the course of the chopping course of.

The garnet abrasive is non-toxic and inert, and since little or no steel is eliminated in the course of the chopping course of, little or no precise steel is wasted. This retains the environmental influence fairly minimal.

How exact is a waterjet cutter?

Circulation waterjets might produce merchandise with extraordinarily tight tolerances; some programs can obtain tolerances as little as 0.001″. (0.025 mm). Half tolerances for water jet machining usually vary from 0.003″ to 0.005″ of an inch. For supplies thicker than 1 inch, the machines will create components with tolerances starting from 0.005 to 0.100 inch (0.12 to 2.5 mm).

Due to variances in know-how, corresponding to management, and machine construction, tolerances differ extensively by producer.

How a lot stress does a water jet cutter have?

Waterjet chopping pressures usually vary from 50,000 to 60,000 PSI. Many more moderen programs are pressured to 90,000 kilos per sq. inch. The water is then discharged by way of a small orifice machined right into a diamond or saphire, which is often between 5 and 15 thousandths of an inch in diameter. The water stream that outcomes is supersonic, which means it travels sooner than the velocity of sound. Luckily, the circulation fee is comparatively low, at roughly 1/2 gallon per minute.

What are some issues of safety concerning water jet chopping?

The water jet penetrating the pores and skin, getting hit by flying particles, and being uncovered to noise are all widespread hazards and considerations related to water jet machining. Working in confined areas, fall hazards, respiratory and eye risks, electrical shock, and potential publicity to harmful substances are all dangers linked with high-pressure water jetting.

A number of Alternative Questions on Water Jet Machining

Q. What’s the key ingredient of water jet machining for materials removing?
a) Software Holder
b) Work piece
c) Water jet
d) Energy supply
Reply: c
Clarification: Water jet is the one, which is used to chop the work piece and to take away materials.

Q. Which of the next isn’t part of machining system of Water jet machining?
a) Transducer
b) Accumulator
c) Jet chopping nozzle
d) Hydraulic pump
Reply: a
Clarification: Transducer isn’t part of Water jet machining and different elements come underneath WJM.

Q. What’s the velocity of the water jet stream in water jet machining?
a) 100 m/sec
b) 300 m/sec
c) 700 m/sec
d) 900 m/sec
Reply: d
Clarification: Velocity of water jet stream that’s utilized in Water jet machining is about 900 m/sec.

Q. Which sort of supplies can’t be machined utilizing Abrasive jet machining?
a) Mushy supplies
b) Arduous supplies
c) Troublesome to machine supplies
d) Not one of the talked about
Reply: a
Clarification: Mushy supplies corresponding to sweet bars, skinny softwood and so forth.., can’t be machined utilizing AJM.

Continuously Requested Questions

Water jet machining can be referred to as as

Water Jet Machining (WJM) additionally referred to as water jet chopping. It’s outlined as, a non-traditional machining course of by which high-velocity jet of water is used to take away supplies from the floor of the workpiece. WJM can be utilized to chop softer supplies like plastic, rubber or wooden.

How is the fabric eliminated abrasive Jet Machining

In abrasive jet machining, a targeted stream of abrasive particles, carried by excessive stress air or gasoline is made to impinge on the work floor by way of a nozzle and work materials is eliminated by erosion by excessive velocity abrasive particles.

The place is water jet machining relevant

WJM course of has been utilized efficiently for various machining operations corresponding to chopping, drilling, deburring and wire stripping, and so forth. It has additionally been utilized within the subject of floor engineering corresponding to floor remedy, cleansing, texturing and ending, and so forth.

What industries use waterjet cutters?

Job Outlets
Meals Processing Gear
Steel Service Middle

Who invented water jet chopping?

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